Dutch development cooperation is at a historical cross-roads. For the first time since 1975, the Dutch financial commitment to development cooperation will fall below the internationally agreed target of 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI). From an international perspective, this is a critical development. While other donor countries are still striving to achieve the target, the Netherlands has long since surpassed it and is now planning to decrease its financial commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA). This report is the result of an analysis of the historical, social and economic context of Dutch development aid and aims to provide insight into the factors that have led to changes in the Dutch approach to development cooperation.